Course: Biochemistry

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Course title Biochemistry
Course code KAZ/BCH
Organizational form of instruction Lecture
Level of course Bachelor
Year of study not specified
Semester Summer
Number of ECTS credits 4
Language of instruction Czech
Status of course unspecified
Form of instruction Face-to-face
Work placements This is not an internship
Recommended optional programme components None
Course availability The course is available to visiting students
Lecturer(s)
  • Vojtajová Markéta, Mgr.
  • Černý Radim, Prof. MUDr. CSc.
  • Drechslerová Taťána, RNDr.
Course content
Lectures: 1.Introduction into a course. The main biogenic molecules. Aminoacids and proteins.Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins. 2.Enzyms - structural, functional and thermodynamic aspects.Kinetics of enzymatic reactions. The regulation of enzymes. Activators and inhibitors of enzymatic reations. Isoenzymes and their theraputical and diagnostic significance. 3. Introduction to a chemistry and metabolism of saccharides. Basics of metabolism: Anaerobic and aerobic glycolyses. Conversion of pyruvate, oxidative decarboxylation of alpha-keto acids. Citrate cycle. 4. Thermodynamics of biochemical reactions. Macroergic compounds. Redox reactions as the main source of energy metabolism. Tissue respiration and its individual components. The proton gradient generation and a production of ATP. 5. Pentose cycle. Gluconeogenesis. UDP saccharide derivatives. Glykogen. The metabolism of galactose and fructose. Carbohydrates in the diet. 6. Introduction to a chemistry and metabolism of lipids. The structure and distribution of lipids.Fatty acid oxidation and biosynthesis.Ketone bodies metabolism. The metabolism of triglycerides.Formation and importance of phospholipids and glycolipids. 7. Cholesterol, biosynthesis, distribution, bile acids. Plasma lipoprotein metabolism, the role of apolipoproteins. Steroid hormones. Metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids and eicosanoids. Structure and function of biomembranes. 8. Overview of the metabolism of proteins and amino acids. Direct and indirect deamination. Detoxification of ammonia, urea cycle. Metabolism of glutamate, aspartate, alanine, proline, arginine, cysteine, methionine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine and tyrosine. PKU. 9. Tetrahydrofolate and one-carbon fragments. Metabolism of glycine, serine, threonine, lysine, histidine and tryptophan. Biosynthesis of porphyrins and their degradation. Bile pigments, icterus. 10. Biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides and their degradation. Structure and function of DNA and RNA. The biosynthesis of DNA, DNA structures repair. Transcription of DNA and its regulation. The origin and role of rRNA, tRNA and mRNA. 11. Genetic code and mutation. The mechanism of protein synthesis. The gene structure and gene expression. Viral replication. DNA manipulation, cloning, relevance to medicine. PCR and its medical applications. Diagnostic methods using DNA and RNA. 12. Hemoglobin and its role. Immunoglobulins, structure and mechanism of gene reconstruction and expression. Immunoglobulin family. Muscle metabolism. Biochemistry of nervous tissue. The main neurotransmitters. 13. Biochemistry of liver. Xenobiochemistry and biotransformation. Nutrition and starvation. Internal environment of the human organism. Acid-base balance. 14. Antimetabolites and their significance in biochemistry and medicine. Free radicals, their creation, operation, and protection against them. Regulation of metabolism. 15. Repetition, tutorials, credit test.

Learning activities and teaching methods
Lecture
  • Contact hours - 60 hours per semester
  • Preparation for an examination (30-60) - 40 hours per semester
prerequisite
professional knowledge
charakterizovat základní metabolické procesy v lidském organismu
learning outcomes
vysvětlit princip působení enzymů v lidském organismu a jejich význam v diagnostice
charakterizovat obecné principy metabolismu, vyjmenovat klíčové meziprodukty a popsat jejich vzájemné vztahy
vysvětlit princip energetiky biochemických reakcí a membránového transportu, princip regulace a ovlivnění metabolismu
prokazovat široké znalosti o regulaci a udržování vnitřního prostředí, významu vody, minerálních látek a pufrovacích systémech lidského organismu
teaching methods
Multimedia supported teaching
Lecture
assessment methods
Test
Oral exam
Recommended literature
  • Dostál, J. a kol. Biochemie pro bakaláře. MU Brno, 2005.
  • Holeček, V. a kol. Biochemie. Avicenum, 1983.
  • Murray, R.K. a kol. Harperova biochemie. Jinočany, H H, 2001.
  • Němečková, A. a kol. Lékařská chemie a biochemie, Avicenum, 1991.
  • Odstrčil, J. Biochemie. Brno, 1995.
  • Racek, J. et al. Klinická biochemie. Praha, Galén, Karolinum, 2006.
  • Štern, P. a kol. Obecná a klinická biochemie pro bakalářské obory studia - CD ROM. Karolinum, Praha, 2005.


Study plans that include the course
Faculty Study plan (Version) Branch of study Category Recommended year of study Recommended semester